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NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research

NURS-FPX4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research -Making Evidence-Based


Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is the effective process of incorporating scientific evidence, patient history, and their health concern’s anatomical as well as pharmaceutical research to propose practices that lead the treatment process. During and after a surgical operation, pain is an expected determinant. Although the application of general anesthesia is a frequent practice during surgeries it wears off afterward and at times acts as a side effect for patients. If it is not addressed appropriately it may cause physiological and psychological side effects including irritability, stress, paranoia, and biochemical changes in the body. It is identified that without the implication of a result-oriented Evidence-Based Approach (EBP) designed for post-surgical treatment then nurses cannot perform effectively (Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska et al., 2018). 

Communicative Strategies

The effective communicative strategies maintained by nurses help them assist in diagnosis. For effective diagnosis, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) scores ay an important role. CAHPS score offers communicative strategies for nurses ranging from clear language, facilitating the old and children to more strategic techniques. One such strategic communicative technique put forward through the CAHPS score is Background, Affect, Trouble, Handling, and Empathy (BATHE) technique. This technique assists nurses in maintaining a communicative relationship with their patients by asking them open-ended questions. These questions can be an update about their health to assist in their health condition to simple distracting factors to keep the morale of patients high. In the case of BATHE utilized for concrete data, a span of five minutes is utilized to determine relevant information.

NURS-FPX4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research -Making Evidence-Based

The second communicative strategy involved is the Teach Back Strategy. It involves asking patients about their understanding of the matter at hand. The patient is then instructed to deliver the information as their understanding. This communicative strategy is utilized to keep the patient and his caregivers on the same page and to get the patient to make an informed decision. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) declares several protocols for teach back strategy including informing the patient about the reasons the iterations are being performed in the form of a protocol (Heath, 2018)

Both these formal communicative strategies are utilized in the surgical procedures of inculcating general anesthesia in patients. It is important that in any surgical or non-surgical procedure that is performed, a formal but trust-based relationship is established between the healthcare sector represented by nurses and the patients. It is not only important for the maintenance of effective communication but also to develop and maintain an element of trust among both parties. A major constituent of patient treatment, other than treatment, is willpower and communication helps achieve just that.

Communication strategies

Maintaining effective communication is an effective strategy for nurses while being guided by the respective authorities to successfully commence the subject at hand. It will train the nurses to understand all kinds of patients they encounter and determine a solution for their concerns. It would enable the nurses to be more confident about their techniques, their achievements, and their manner of approaching patients (Li et al., 2019) The head nurses have to be more mindful understanding, and resourceful. They have to maintain effective communication with nurses by maintaining communication and providing them with much-needed assistance. NURS-FPX4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research -Making Evidence-Based. They have to rate the nurse’s decisions and develop strategies to help make their performance better (Mikkonen et al., 2020).  Nurses are provided with all kinds of helping material be it concrete or digital to learn their subject matter better. Practice Nurse Postcard Tool is the tool they use to provide up-to-date situation-based guidelines to the nurses (Hanson, A., & Haddad, 2021)

Best places to complete research

The currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose (CRAAP) test is utilized to identify the most credible digital sources for data collection (Central Michigan University, 2020). The sources to be utilized have to fulfill the merit for their data to be considered. To fulfill the criteria listed by CRAAP for authentication, the nurses have to access an authentic platform to search the material (Liu, G. 2021).  The nurses who are actively working always have updated resources to determine the material to create the most efficient Evidence-Based Approaches which help the patients in treatment as well as in or after surgical procedures (Li, S et al., 2019). The nurses can access the digital portals of their healthcare institutes, and digital and physical libraries to access relevant information. Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research, Journal of Pain & Relief, Analgesia & Resuscitation: Current Research, Journal of Intensive and Critical Care, and Journal of Pain Management & Medicine are utilized for data collection. It is determined that the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) considers the use and interpretation of Anesthesia in patients as per a transnational spectrum. (Lane Fall et al, 2020). These ideas ignore the patient’s comfort or safety protocols to prioritize a management system that could backfire in utility. Before anesthesia, the nurses should ensure that patients have no history of allergies or hyperthermia to avoid any long-lasting concerns (Smith & Goldman, 2019)

If this is not properly done, anesthesia may cause physiological responses, and if ignored could cause morbidity or extensive side effects (Siddiqui & Kim, 2022).

Sources of online information

The five criteria put forward by CRAAP determine a few credible online sources to access data. These sources are available on Health Sciences databases A-Z list and it included Ulrich’s periodical dictionary, Cumulative Index to Nursing, PubMed website, MEDLINE, and Allied Health Literature database run by EBSCO publishing. It included MEDSURG Nursing, American Journal of Nursing, American Journal of Public Health, OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing as well as the Columbian Journal of Anesthesiology by Wolters Kluwer. The respective journals have all the data required for the analysis of post-surgical pain in patients and case studies of dealing with it and creating EBP for it.

NURS-FPX4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research -Making Evidence-Based

The sources mentioned here are evaluated through CRAAP and are aligned according to their usefulness. Other sources approved by CRAAP and authenticating the latest research about general anesthesia include the Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research, Journal of Pain & Relief, Analgesia & Resuscitation: Current Research, Journal of Intensive and Critical Care, and Journal of Pain Management & Medicine. These sources provide a directed approach and the latest trends in the matter as all the latest research, case studies, techniques, and technical advancements are submitted to these journals (Wang et al., 2018) So, it is hard to miss a research update regarding general anesthesia about the matter. Based on patient sensitivity, the updated chemical combinations regarding anesthesia and its effect on patients with various underlying health conditions are also documented in these research papers. 

Evidence for the chosen diagnosis/health care issue

The reason for selecting respective sources is the ability to access authentic articles from credible research journals which provide information regarding medicine as a profession, practical implications in the nursing module, and authentic researcher’s work that proves itself in the patient care practice module. The sources selected provide well-organized data about the topic under discussion which is administering pain in a patient after surgery. An EBP is established for this health concern and this practice is supported through research material and case studies. The acquired material is justified through obtained results. The journals and papers acquired for this research are mostly unpaid. Even then the latest trends and updates about the matter are well documented. In the chosen resources multiple kinds and variations of anesthesia stages are discussed including Analgesia which is the introduction of anesthesia-induced medication to patients who do not exhibit its effect just yet.

NURS-FPX4030 Assessment 1: Locating Credible Databases and Research -Making Evidence-Based

The second stage is Delirium which is uncontrolled body movements exhibited by the patient due to the underwhelming effect of anesthesia just yet. The third stage is the introduction of Surgical Anesthesia which is a formal introduction of anesthesia to make the patient completely unconscious and immobile. The fourth stage is more of a precaution which is Overdose. Based on the patient’s physical and physiological health, the anesthesia may reflect itself in overdose form but it can be avoided by careful examination of the dose and chemical combination of the medicine (Siddiqui&Kim, 2022). This step-by-step procedure and determined precaution are just reflective of the procedure and impact of anesthesia documented in the journals and research papers understudy. 


In any medical concern, proper assistance, and effective communication by head nurses and respective authorities help create an EBP for any health concern faced by the patients. This intervention and assistance provided by the leaders assist the nurses, especially in cases they have not experienced before. To authenticate their EBP approach, nurses access research material authorized by the CRAAP model to use credible data for their practice.


Central Michigan University. (2020). Website research: CRAAP test.

Guerin Smith, & Goldman, J. (2019, May 4). General Anesthesia for Surgeons.; StatPearls Publishing.

Hanson, A., & Haddad, L. M. (2021, September 12). Nursing Rights of Medication Administration. PubMed; Stat Pearls Publishing.

Heath, S. (2018, December 17). Effective Nurse Communication Skills and Strategies. PatientEngagementHIT.

Lane-Fall et al., (2020). The future of research in anesthesiology. International Anesthesiology Clinics, Publish Ahead of Print.

Liu, G. (2021). Moving up the ladder of source assessment: Expanding the CRAAP test with critical thinking and metacognition. College & Research Libraries News, 82(2), 75.

Li, S. et al., (2019). Evidence-based practice. Medicine, 98(39), e17209.

Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, W et al. (2018). Nurses’ knowledge and barriers regarding pain management. Journal of Peri Anesthesia Nursing, 33(5), P715–726.

Mikkonen, K.,et al. (2020). Development and testing of an evidence-based model of mentoring nursing students in clinical practice. Nurse Education Today, 85.

Siddiqui, B. A., & Kim, P. Y. (2020). Anesthesia Stages. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Wang, Y.-Y., Wan, Q.-Q., Lin, F., Zhou, W.-J., & Shang, S.-M. (2018). Interventions to improve communication between nurses and physicians in the intensive care unit: An integrative literature review. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(1), 81–88.

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