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NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1: Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

Assessment 1: Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

Student Name 

Capella University

NURS-FPX 4900: Capstone Project for Nursing

Professor Name


Introduction to the Focused Problem and its Relevance

Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among U.S. women, excluding skin cancer. Furthermore, breast cancer is the second highest reason for cancer mortality among women and the top cause of cancer death among Hispanic women, despite a drop in breast cancer-related mortality across a period (Bartlett et al., 2019). A woman’s average lifetime chance of acquiring breast cancer in the United States is around 13%. This indicates that she has a 1 in 8 probability of developing breast cancer. This also shows she has a 7 out of 8 possibilities of never contracting the illness. Breast cancer represents around 30% of all new cancer diagnoses in women in the United States annually.

Patient, Family, or Population Health Problem

Breast cancer is the second most prevalent disease in women in the United States (Ting et al., 2019). In addition, breast cancer accounts for a more significant percentage of deaths among African-American women than it does among White women. Not only did the pain and discomfort category disproportionately impact younger breast cancer patients, but it also produced the lowest quality of life outcomes for patients of all ages (Pilevarzadeh et al., 2019).

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1: Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

In addition, pain, irritation, anxiety, and sadness impact the quality-of-life categories significantly impaired amongst breast cancer survivors when contrasted to the overall community of the same age. Breast cancer could negatively impact personal and professional practices as, Eventually, breast cancer metastasizes or expands via circulation to other places in the system. It may cause cancers in the brain, bones, liver, lungs, and other areas. Possible consequences include obstructed blood arteries, bone fractures, spinal cord compression, and patient discomfort (Curigliano et al., 2020).

Annie is my colleague at Cleveland Clinic Hospital. She was recently diagnosed with breast cancer and has severe symptoms, e.g., a New lump in the breast, a thickness or enlargement of a portion of the breast, breast skin inflammation and indentation formation.

Peer-Reviewed Literature

Breast cancer continues to be the most prevalent malignancy amongst women globally. In the 2018 GLOBOCAN report, nearly 2.7 million reports of breast cancer were detected globally, and 670,000 people died (Kurian et al., 2019). Below are the nursing actions for the treatment of the breast cancer patient:

Acknowledge the Patients

It is essential to recognize each breast cancer patient has different demands. Patients need to understand whether their nurses have expertise in treating patients with their treatment (Dietz et al., 2020).

Help Patients Navigate the System

As patient explorers, nurses may assist breast cancer patients with specialist recommendations, visits, testing, and therapies (Ganggayah et al., 2019).

Listen, Be Patient, and Teach Accordingly

Patients only remember roughly 10 percent of what clinicians say during conversations. Therefore, when instructing, nurses must be patient and provide knowledge to the degree that every patient can grasp, restrict the usage of medical language, and allow patients as much time as they require to assimilate the material (Hashemi et al., 2019).

Educate Patients

The nurse’s role includes a huge amount of responsibility for educating the patient. Patients who get education are more able to take control of their own health and wellness. Patients are increasingly likely to participate in treatments that may improve their chances of having a favorable result if they are included in the decision-making process about their care.

Potential Barriers

A lack of knowledge, reluctance to embrace social help and an inability to find psychological recovery were some individual barriers to treating breast cancer. Furthermore, avoidance of male physicians and sensitivity toward women were two main socio-cultural elements (Mokhatri-Hesari & Montazeri, 2020). In addition, structural barriers, such as a shortage of financial capabilities and unsatisfactory health care, hamper screening and treatment.

State Board Nursing Practice Standards

Below are the state board nursing practice standards and organizations that could assist patients of breast cancer:

Medicaid Cancer Treatment Program

The Medicaid Cancer Treatment Program (MCTP) is a Medicaid service for eligible patients diagnosed with breast cancer who need treatment. Inpatient cancer therapy is typically covered under Medicare Part A (Bullough, 2019). Medicare Part B includes several outpatient cancer-related therapies and procedures that are clinically required. Therefore, it is conceivable to be hospitalized while remaining an outpatient.

NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1: Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations

American Cancer Society (ACS)

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a national non-profit organization committed to the cure of cancer. The organization, founded in 1913, comprises medical and public members functioning in more than 270 local branches around the U.S. (Hudson, 2018). It is a renowned cancer-fighting organization whose mission is to eradicate breast cancer for everyone. Furthermore, as the leading organization constantly fighting cancer via legislation, education, and patient assistance, they are enhancing the lifestyles of individuals with cancer and associated families to ensure that everybody can avoid, diagnose, cure, and beat cancer (Kardong-Edgren et al., 2020).

Young Survival Coalition (YSC)

Young Survival Coalition (YSC), founded in 1998, is the major organization devoted entirely to young patients diagnosed with breast cancer under 40. YSC guarantees that no young adult fights breast cancer lonely via instructional materials and programs, yearly seminars, and digital and regional supporting groups (Nehring, 2018).

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Affordable Care Act (ACA)

According to research that was provided at the AACR Cancer Health Disparities Conference in September 2016, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) might indeed also substantially boosted the number of breast cancer patients seeking treatment at an NCI-designated cancer facility as well as involvement in a diagnostic trial in the state of California (Hunsicker & Chitwood, 2018). 

Leadership Strategies to Improve Outcomes

The clinical nurse leader (CNL), an emergent and multidimensional nursing profession, was created to apply evidence-based practice to uncover gaps in the quality-of-care provision, collaboration, and administration for a particular group of patients (Ting et al., 2019). By collaborating with functional groups at the scale of the medical setting, CNLs boost corporate efficiency and maximize patient outcomes. There are multiple leadership styles, but the transformational styles are the best for the nursing leader treating diabetes. NURS FPX 4900 Assessment 1: Assessing the Problem: Leadership, Collaboration, Communication, Change Management, and Policy Considerations. In healthcare settings, transformational leadership could encourage caregivers and medicare professionals to continue providing exceptional diabetes care for older residents and to collaborate cooperatively to promote putting their teaching into practice. This can be especially beneficial for residents who have diabetes (Garcia‐Sierra & Fernandez‐Castro, 2018). Below are the leadership strategies that a nursing leader use to improve patient outcomes and care quality:

Making Personal Connections

Strong interpersonal bonds serve as the foundation of nurse-patient communication. Lasting interactions would make it easier for nurses to do their clinical duties and retain patients interested in medical treatment (Tsaras et al., 2018).

Using Communication Skills

In conjunction with building relationships with patients, nurses are responsible for assuring that patients comprehend and are therefore involved in the care programs. In 2018, the American Academy of Nursing confirmed patient communication as a vital aspect of nursing (Rashid et al., 2021).

Health Information Technology and Telehealth

Health I.T. performs a crucial function in facilitating effective nurse-patient communication. For example, utilizing personal tablets, digital nurse contact bells, and digital assessment devices has assisted nurses in assisting patients with breast cancer in an emergency (Nehring, 2018). In addition, the digitization of patient educational programs has also helped streamline and improve the nurse-patient connection.

Need for Collaboration, Communication, and Change Management

Understanding and encouraging the communication requirements of patients might significantly improve their healthcare of patients (Kurian et al., 2019). Consequently, counselling must be a vital element of the treatment plan for breast cancer patients and associated caregivers.

During the practicum hours spent with Sophia, I learned that her quality of life is impacted due to this disease and ultimately negatively impacts her professional life. He stated that she has to deal with frequent pain and irritation, and because of this discomfort, she has to take off from the workplace, which badly impacts her growth in the organization.


Cancer is a condition wherein the body’s cells proliferate unchecked. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women in the U.S., apart from skin cancer. Young breast cancer survivors were disproportionately afflicted by the physical irritation category, with the lowest quality of life results across all age groups. The clinical nurse leader (CNL), a newly designed and complex nursing job, was created to apply evidence-based practice to detect gaps in the quality-of-care provision, collaboration, and administration for a particular patient group.


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Bullough, B. (2019). The law and the expanding nursing role. American Journal of Public Health, 66(3), 249–254.

Curigliano, G., Cardoso, M. J., Poortmans, P., Gentilini, O., Pravettoni, G., Mazzocco, K., Houssami, N., Pagani, O., Senkus, E., & Cardoso, F. (2020). Recommendations for triage, prioritization and treatment of breast cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Breast, 52(4), 8–16.

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Ganggayah, M. D., Taib, N. A., Har, Y. C., Lio, P., & Dhillon, S. K. (2019). Predicting factors for survival of breast cancer patients using machine learning techniques. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 19(1).

García‐Sierra, R., & Fernández‐Castro, J. (2018). Relationships between leadership, structural empowerment, and engagement in nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(12), 2809–2819.

Hashemi, S.-M., Rafiemanesh, H., Aghamohammadi, T., Badakhsh, M., Amirshahi, M., Sari, M., Behnamfar, N., & Roudini, K. (2019). Prevalence of anxiety among breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer, 27(2), 166–178.

Hudson, K. A. (2018). Teaching Nursing Concepts Through an Online Discussion Board. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(9), 531–536.

Hunsicker, J., & Chitwood, T. (2018). High-stakes testing in nursing education. Nurse Educator, 43(4), 183–186.

Kurian, A. W., Ward, K. C., Howlader, N., Deapen, D., Hamilton, A. S., Mariotto, A., Miller, D., Penberthy, L. S., & Katz, S. J. (2019). Genetic testing and results in a population-based cohort of Breast Cancer patients and ovarian Cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 37(15), 1305–1315.

Kardong-Edgren, S., Willhaus, J., Bennett, D., & Hayden, J. (2020). Results of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing National Simulation Survey: Part II. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(4), e117–e123.

Mokhatri-Hesari, P., & Montazeri, A. (2020). Health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: review of reviews from 2008 to 2018. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18(1), 338.

Nehring, W. M. (2018). U.S. Boards of Nursing and the use of high-fidelity patient simulators in Nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(2), 109–117.

Pilevarzadeh, M., Amirshahi, M., Afsargharehbagh, R., Rafiemanesh, H., Hashemi, S.-M., & Balouchi, A. (2019). Global prevalence of depression among breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 176(3), 519–533.

Rashid, A., Aqeel, M., Malik, D. B., & Salim, D. S. (2021). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Breast Cancer patients; A cross-sectional study of Breast Cancer patients Experience in Pakistan. Nature-Nurture Journal of Psychology, 1(1).

Ting, F. F., Tan, Y. J., & Sim, K. S. (2019). Convolutional neural network improvement for breast cancer classification. Expert Systems with Applications, 120(4), 103–115.

Tsaras, K., Papathanasiou, I. V., Mitsi, D., Veneti, A., Kelesi, M., Zyga, S., & Fradelos, E. C. (2018). Assessment of depression and anxiety in Breast Cancer patients: Prevalence and associated factors. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP, 19(6), 1661–1669.

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